The resolution of the spatial light modulator (SLM) screen and the encoding algorithm of the computer-generated hologram are the primary limiting factors in the generation of large topological charge vortex beams. This paper attempts to solve these problems by improving both the hardware and the algorithm. Theoretically, to overcome the limitations of beam waist radius, the amplitude profile function of large topological charge Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) beam is properly improved. Then, an experimental system employing a 4K phase-only SLM is set up, and the LG beams with topological charge up to 1200 are successfully generated. Furthermore, we discuss the effect of different beam waist radii on the generation of LG beams. Additionally, the function of the LG beam is further improved to generate an LG beam with a topological charge as high as 1400. Our results set a new benchmark for generating large topological charge vortex beams, which can be widely used in precise measurement, sensing, and communication.